What is honey fungus?
Honey fungus, or Armillaria, is a fungus that damages and kills the roots of many trees and shrubs causing the plant to die.
How to spot honey fungus
The most obvious sign of honey fungus is discovering papery whitish strings of mycelia beneath the bark at the base and roots. Sometimes this is visible but if unsure peel away a little bark to check.
In autumn fruiting bodies appear above ground. These can be an orangey honey colour (hence the name) to various shades of brown. Not finding these toadstools does not mean you don’t have the fungus. Likewise removing the toadstools will not get rid of the fungus.
Other signs (see What damage does it cause? below) can be harder to detect as they may affect the host plant for several years before causing its death and can often be mistaken as symptoms of other problems, such as drought.
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What damage does honey fungus cause?
- tips of branches dying away, particularly in hot weather
- poor or pale foliage
- no flowers
- bleeding and cracking bark especially at the base of stems
- death of plant
What plants does honey fungus attack?
Honey fungus can attack most woody and herbaceous perennials eg birch, hydrangea, privet, apple, pear, magnolia, beech.
Most vulnerable? Roses, lilac, flowering currant, willow, viburnum
Are any woody plants immune? Black walnut and box elder have good resistance as do bamboos, box, pittosporum, jasmine, gingko, garrya, clematis, continus, fremontodendron and hypericum. So if your plot is riddled with honey fungus all is not lost.
How does honey fungus spread?
Honey fungus spreads via dark reddish brown/black bootlace strings (rhizomorphs) that travel through the soil. These can be found an inch to eight inches below ground, sometimes even deeper and can travel over three feet a year which is why it is vital to treat outbreaks thoroughly.
How can you deal with honey fungus?
There are no sprays or treatments available to tackle honey fungus so the bad news is that once you are certain you have it in your garden there is no alternative but to dig out the affected plant and destroy it completely by burning or taking it to landfill. Make sure to properly remove all the roots. Once the host plant is removed the bootlace rhizomorphs spreading out from it can no longer survive.
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